INTERNET CONTROL: A Dangerous Idea that has UN and control stamped all over it

Posted by Indian Muslim Observer | 05 June 2012 | Posted in , , , ,

The proposal to regulate the Internet through a UN council could alter everything that we take for granted — freedom of expression, free speech and privacy

By Rajeev Chandrasekhar

India’s proposal at the United Nations in October 2011, seeking the formation of an inter-governmental, 50-member body — Committee on Internet Related Policies (CIRP)— is perhaps one of the worst ideas that the government has paraded in the past few years.
As someone involved with telecommunications, technology and the Internet for nearly two decades, I have tried to review this proposal from every possible angle. Apart from the evidence at hand, it is clear that the timing and language of both the IT (Intermediary Guidelines) Rules of April 2011 — to govern the Internet domestically — and the proposal under question six months later in October, show the government’s intent to control and capture the Internet space.

Without question, the Indian government is spooked not just by the Arab Spring — the overthrow of dictators in Libya and Egypt through use of the Internet and social media — but equally, a huge mass of humanity that collected within minutes, whether it was outside the Tihar Jail to seek the release of Anna Hazare or at the Ramlila Maidan to participate in the anti-corruption movement. Regardless of the fate of that movement, the government’s fear that the Internet and social media can start a wave of protests that can quickly go national is the main reason driving this undemocratic proposal of government control over the Internet. Now, a brief look at why this is a bad idea.

It’s all for the wrong reasons. It is nothing but a government body that would be run by joint secretaries or ambassadors or telecom ministers. The objectives stated in the proposal are both weak and easily achievable under the existing system. No doubt, it is cleverly worded with generous use of pluralistic language, but in reality, it promotes a dangerous idea that has the UN and control stamped all over it.

The solution is worse than the problem. Apart from the need to exercise control over the Internet, and by extension, freedom of expression, free speech and privacy, the real reason being stated in undertones is that the current multi-stakeholder body — ICANN, which governs the Internet — is located out of the US and has close relationships with the American government. However, no evidence has been provided as to how the location of ICANN or its relationship with the US government hurts India.

Regardless, I’m the first to vote that no single government should have such proximity with the governance of the Internet. We must find a way to revolutionise, improve and expand the multi-stakeholder nature of ICANN. But to move from being under the influence of one government to a structure where 50 government bureaucrats and politicians get to decide the future of the Internet is like going from a situation that makes us uncomfortable, to one that has the potential of killing innovation, growth, and even the Internet as we know it today.

The proposal is self-serving. Rather than strengthening it by bringing in citizen groups, civil society and academia, the proposal hopes to put government officials in the core seat of deciding the way forward, based on the advice that they receive from other stakeholders. In effect, they could write treaties and bind India to them, and later, we could be subject to those as a signatory. If an issue of defining free speech or privacy was to be discussed with countries such as China, Russia, Cuba, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Uzbekistan, Myanmar, Zimbabwe and Sudan, then you can well imagine how that language would read and how far away it could be from our constitutional rights. Once committed, international treaties will become virtually impossible to dislodge. Even Parliament could have a hard time taking effective steps undoing such a disaster.

The proposal is lazy and unimaginative. From all evidence since the Tunis Agenda of 2005 was announced, little or no effort has been made by India to reform the existing structure. It has middle and junior-level officers participating in international fora. Those who drive the agenda send in senior secretary- level officers who are savvy, well read and confident. In spite of having a representative on the board of directors of ICANN, the Indian government has done little to work with him. The chinese, who have also sought government control, are working parallelly to get their people elected to some of the most important positions around the world — the oldest trick in the book. On the other hand, India remains lazy in its approach and unimaginative in its proposal. Its partner countries, Brazil and South Africa, had the worst human rights records till the 1990s. If the Indian government can’t even come up with an imaginative proposal, how do you expect them to manage the Internet when they have a seat at the high table? They are eminently unqualified to take on the job they aspire to do.

The proposal is against India’s character and constitution. The plan to subject the Internet to a 50-member inter-governmental body hurts India’s reputation as a multi-ethnic, multi-cultural and democratic society with an open economy and an abiding culture for pluralism. It’s against everything that we stand for. Even Pakistan refuses to associate itself with such a disastrous proposal.

Besides, the proposal is against the interest of 800 million mobile and 100 million Internet users and counting. The very thought of having the government control the Internet or supervise it in any form goes against the concept of the Internet as a vehicle for openness, democracy, freedom of expression, human rights, diversity, inclusiveness, creativity, free and unhindered access to information and knowledge, global connectivity, innovation and socio-economic growth. Even if India were to argue that we are committed to these ideals, there is no reason to believe that other government officials will do the same.

Remember, only 30 percent of the countries of the world are real democracies. The rest range from periodic democracies and flawed democracies to authoritarian rules. These governments will be represented in the proportion of their membership (not population) on the 50-member council. They will make the policies and write the treaties. They have no obligation to go by India’s values or constitutional provisions, but in the end, the government can use that camouflage to attack our freedom in ways that are currently prohibited. If it sounds scary, just think of the manner in which the IT Rules have been handled, or how Anna Hazare was labelled when he got on the wrong side of the government. Moreover, once such a treaty is in place, it will run across governments — current and future — so anyone could misuse it.

For a proposal that promises to advance the cause of democracy, pluralism, inclusion, openness and transparency, very little has been demonstrated in reality. The proposal smacks of hypocrisy. Almost no one in the country knew that this proposal has been made behind our backs. There was little or no consultation whatsoever. The telecom ministry has engaged in half-a-dozen open houses since January 2011, but not a whisper about the fact that such a critical document was being submitted at the UN. No substantive discussion in Parliament either. What possibly could be the motive of keeping a proposal that the government believes will advance the cause of democracy and user interest, secret from those whose cause it pretends to advance?

The proposal goes against the basic engineering architecture and timely decision-making required for Internet governance. A centrally controlled, top-heavy, inter-governmental framework is fundamentally against the open and inclusive architecture of the Internet. No government should be allowed to dominate this space. An inter-governmental body is much worse, which can make engineering and economic decisions that need to be made quickly, virtually impossible. This is exactly what the Internet does not need. Critical decisions relating to the growth and the expansion of the Internet will certainly be politically paralysed when subject to a discussion, or worse still, a treaty between Member States that have no ideology to share. Just look at the UN’s overall track record for building consensus even on simple issues like halting wars or controlling bloodshed. Can you imagine bureaucrats in charge of the Internet?

The proposal is about control, and control in the hands of those who lack competence. Or else, the government would have sought an option to expand the multi-stakeholder arrangement or perhaps even argued that the government should get an equal seat along with the other stakeholders. But to alter an arrangement that has added 2.5 billion Internet users so far with half a million being added each day, and moving it to government control reeks of a subliminal intent. Worse still, even with the best intentions, the bureaucrats are illequipped to handle this job.

Lastly, the government’s proposal pretends that it is based on the Tunis Agenda. Nothing could be further from the truth. The Tunis Agenda had multi-stake-holderism written all over it. The government is purposely misrepresenting the sections that it is citing. Paras 34, 35, 56, 58, 59 and especially 61 and 69 do not bear out the need for an inter-governmental body to oversee Internet governance with all other stakeholders moved into a peripheral role. In fact, the Tunis Agenda is about inclusion of the government in decision-making and recognition of an appropriate role by the government, not the exclusion of key stakeholders, with the government being in charge.

This is a cause worth fighting against. This has the potential of affecting this generation and most certainly the future generations. The Indian government must be persuaded on rationale and logic to withdraw its proposal, reconsider the options, subject it to a wide consultation within the country, and then lead from the front.

American influence should be the least of our worries. The withdrawal of the proposal will be a sign of strong introspection and not weakness. Internet users, bloggers, and most importantly the media, must understand that what seems like an innocuous statement in the UN today has the potential of completely altering their source of communication and access to information and knowledge within a short period of time. This is a dog that should not be allowed to bark.

[Rajeev Chandrasekhar is Member of Parliament]

(Courtesy: Tehelka)

The Beauty of Islam

Posted by Indian Muslim Observer | | Posted in , , ,

By Imam Zaid Shakir

Death and destruction tend to be associated with Muslims, but the Prophet reminded, “God is Beautiful and He likes beauty.”

For many people, including some Muslims, it has become difficult to associate Islam with beauty. The popular view of Islam is based largely on images conveyed by the mass media, and those images are usually repugnant. Such images may include the carnage wreaked by suicide bombers upon unsuspecting crowds of innocent people in mosques, bazaars and other public gathering places. They may include the faces of women that have been mutilated or disfigured by acid or blades owing to some un-Islamic concepts of honour, ownership or worse. Those images may include the distorted visages of angry men railing against outrages or atrocities that their anger does little to alter or abate.

In short, the images usually associated with Islam and Muslims are those of death, destruction, harshness and anger. Rarely do we see images of life, gentleness and happiness. Indeed, many Muslim societies are challenged by scourges such as war and famine, and the pictures painted by such afflictions, usually, are not beautiful. This is a reality that transcends religion.
However, even in those societies there are heroic struggles being waged daily that highlight the dignity that still characterises most Muslims. A discerning photographer or videographer could readily capture many of the countless beautiful images those struggles give birth to. Unfortunately, in far too many instances, those capable of doing so are frequently charged to capture images that reinforce the most negative stereotypes associated with Islam and Muslims.

That being the case, each and every one of us has a responsibility to do what we can to counter the prevailing stereotypes and to present an alternative image. To do that effectively, we have to realise just how beautiful our religion is and then begin to articulate that beauty in all that we do. The Prophet, peace upon him, reminded us that God is beautiful and that He loves beauty (Muslim). Similarly, he reminded us of the incomparable beauty of Paradise; most powerfully when he simply stated, “God has prepared for His righteous servants [in Paradise] what no eye has ever beheld, no ear has ever heard, and what no human heart has ever imagined.” (Bukhari)

Historically, Muslims have endeavoured to capture the beauty of the Divine as well as the beauty they believed to exist in Paradise in everything they did. As a result, the most beautiful art, architecture, music, literature, cuisine, gardens, homes, dress, and cities adorning the pre-modern world were those crafted by Muslim hands. Even today, after centuries of decline, the carpets, calligraphy, cuisine, tile-work, and other manifestations of brilliant Muslim cultural creation are the most sought after on earth.

Perhaps more importantly, Muslims always strove to be beautiful people. Some of our greatest scholars wrote books encouraging the believers to adorn themselves with the beautiful names and attributes of God—to the extent humanly possible. Morality and character reformation were great goals that helped to define the very essence of Islam. Such an emphasis was never seen as an inauthentic appendage to the pure teachings of the Qur’an and the Sunnah of the Prophet, peace upon him. These teachings were found at the very heart of the Revelation.
God addresses His Beloved Muhammad, “Verily, you are established on an exalted standard of conduct.” (68:4) He then reminds us, “Surely, the Messenger of God is a most excellent example for any of you who puts his hope in God and the Last Day and remembers God much.” (33:21) The truly successful believer is one who follows the prophetic example and endeavours to adorn herself or himself with beautiful and virtuous character. 

The Prophet, peace upon him, also described God as good when he mentioned, “God is good and He only accepts goodness.” (Muslim) Muslims strove with might and main to be good people. By so doing, they were people of character and integrity, hospitality and fidelity, kindness and generosity, courage and honesty. Their character impressed itself on all who visited the Muslim world when Muslims lived in societies that bore the distinct stamp of a viable Islamic civilisation. It was the strength of their character and not the force of their arms that was most instrumental in the spread of Islam over vast expanses of the globe.

Now that the civilisation fostered by Islam has been eclipsed by that of the West, the best thing we can do is to make sure that we continue to represent the best of what our civilisation embodied. Although the cultural achievements we mentioned earlier are laudable, the most telling embodiment of Islamic Civilisation lay in the beauty, goodness and character of its people as defined by their ethical system. This is true of any society, nation or civilisation, as mentioned by the great Egyptian poet, Ahmad Shawqi, when he wrote, “Nations are none other than the ethics they embody. When their ethics go, they will soon follow.”

What the poet mentioned is particularly true for the Muslim community, in that its ethical system is based not so much on the characteristics that are peculiar to a specific people. Rather, it is based on principles and knowledge that can be adopted by any people in any time and place. Hence, unlike the Egyptian, Hindu, Mesopotamian, Greek, Roman, Mayan or other civilisations, Islamic civilisation is mobile and can appear anywhere. Thus, over a period of more than 1,000 years it has had Arab, Persian, Turkish, Indian, European and African iterations.

Having said this, we should not be deceived into believing that a revival of Muslim civilisation lies in the achievement of political power or strategic domination and become obsessed with the attainment of the mechanisms usually viewed as essential for their attainment. No revival will be possible without the revival of the ethical system that undergirded the beautiful character and goodness of the Muslim people when their civilisation was the envy of the world.

Beautiful character, in this regard, should not be seen as lying in philosophically titillating abstractions. It is oftentimes manifested in the simplest things. A gentle smile extended to a soul longing to be loved. Patiently enduring the abuses and insults of the ignorant, while endeavouring to educate and inform them with the best manner possible. The loving embrace of a spouse fatigued after a long day competing in what has all too fittingly been described as the “rat race.” The selfless consideration of the best interests of one’s relatives, neighbours, and when relevant, even a stranger. A quiet but determined commitment to reading, learning and critical thinking as the foundation of a life lived in the light of truth and moral excellence.  It is further to be found in the willingness to sacrifice something of our present for the sake of our children’s future.

These, and other acts we could mention, are all concrete manifestations of high character and we could of course find numerous citations from the Qur’an and prophetic Sunnah to magnify their significance. A point to note here is that these are the things we can control. Hence, they should demand great commitment from us towards their attainment.

The Prophet, peace upon him, mentioned, “A person’s Islam being good involves him leaving what does not concern him.” (Tirmidhi) Among those things of no concern to us are the things beyond our control. This is particularly true in strategic affairs. Ultimately, it is God who will determine which nations will be tested with strength and which will be tested with weakness. It is clearly stated in the Qur’an, “Say, God, the possessor of all dominion! You extend dominion to whosoever you will and you remove it from whosoever you will. You elevate whosoever you will and you debase whosoever you will. In your hand is all good. Surely, you have power over all things.” (3:26)

When we become obsessed with the attainment of what can only be given by God, we find ourselves more willing to make the kinds of compromises that negate the beauty of our character. Such compromises are not confined to issues related to war and peace; they extend to our entire affair. For example, obsession with the wherewithal of the world leads us to dishonour our contracts, cheat on our taxes, misrepresent our financial situation to remain on the dole, sell illegal drugs and alcohol and engage in other acts that not only sully our individual reputation, but when widespread in our communities make the Muslim community itself seem ugly in the eyes of others.

Finally, it is unacceptable for us to use the excuse of the ugliness of the world for our lack of beauty. If enough of us are committed to bringing to the world as much beauty as we can then the world will be a more beautiful place. It will never be perfect. However, the light of our beauty will help to hide the darkness of its imperfections. This is the surest path to an Islamic revival.
“O the complainant who suffers no malady! Be beautiful yourself and you will see beauty in all of creation.” Ilya Abu Madh

(Courtesy: Emel)

ENVIRONMENT: Solar power

Posted by Indian Muslim Observer | | Posted in , , , , ,

The solar industry is expected to grow by leaps and bounds and will churn out more than three lakh jobs by 2022. Sangeeta Yadav brings you a report on this growing sector and the job opportunities it has to offer

India aspires to become a major global solar player in the world and, for this reason, it is expected that the country will see a a growing demand for skilled manpower for solar stations at the grassroots level.

“To take the renewable mission forward, the country needs to to adopt greater transparency, benchmarking and monitoring, strategic approaches to finance and technology neutral policies for manufacturing. Gujarat is the leading State which has used this affordable technology efficiently. They have come up with solar farms which generates a lot of electricity. This eco-friendly and technically more durable power storing solution has become the need of the hour,” Srikanth Chandrasekaran, chairman, IEEE SIG for India, tells you.

The solar industry has become a favourite investment destination for foreign investors as well. The demand for solar products has been rising rapidly. “The Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission that aims at generating 20,000 MW power a year by 2022 under the National Solar Mission (NSM), would need three lakh people across all domains, profiles and levels. But there is a lack of technical job-specific skills, many of which are related to science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM),” Debasish Paul Choudhury, president, SEMI India, says.


“For every 10 jobs created in solar factories, there will be 15 jobs created downstream, in installation, financing, project development, and distribution. Globally around 8 lakh people are employed in the solar industry, with 3,00,000 people in Europe alone. Currently, US solar industry employs about 1,50,000 people, and approximately 6,000 people are employed in the Indian solar industry. The solar industry will require 60-65 per cent electrical engineers, 20-25 per cent mechanical engineers, 10 per cent electronics engineers and remaining civil engineers in areas where technical expertise is required,” Choudhury elaborates.

Courses Offered

The course duration varies from a week, six months or even an extensive two to three years course depending on the institute and the extent of programme. To address the needs of the solar photovoltaic (PV) industry, various training programmes are been delivered by leading academic and industry experts. Various organisations conduct events at a larger scale like Solarcon India 2012 which will be taking place from September 3 to 5, 2012 at the Bangalore International Exhibition Center, Bangalore. This aims to provide a platform for the industry, Government, NGOs and other eco-system partners to come together and evolve plans for the growth of the local industry.

Job Profiles

There is plethora of job profiles in this sector. From project head, engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) head to project directors, GM operations/project, senior manager projects, manager projects, purchase manager, solar project design engineer, assistant technical manager et al there are positions aplenty.

Skills & Eligibility required

Students must have completed higher secondary education in Science stream as a minimum eligibility criterion. Engineering graduates or final year engineering students are also eligible for masters courses. Whether an individual aspires to work in a social, corporate, or non-profit organisation, a course in solar renewable resources places you on the right track to landing a job.


Entry level positions start from trainee engineers in manufacturing, system and project design, installation, operation and maintenance, procurement et al. Today, a fresher/trainee engineer in a solar company can earn a salary ranging from Rs 20,000 to Rs 25,000 per-month. However, a candidate with a master’s degree can earn between Rs 35,000 to Rs 40,000 per month depending on one’s personal skillset. Currently, professionals with 8 to 10 years’ experience in the solar industry are earning a salary of Rs 25 lakhs per annum.

Where to study

National Centre for Photovoltaic Research and Education, IIT Bombay
Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission of the Government of India.

(Courtesy: The Pioneer)

EDITORIAL: Mr. Narendra Modi, you have a choice

Posted by Indian Muslim Observer | 04 June 2012 | Posted in , , , , , ,

By Mike Ghouse

Narendra Modi is one of the most loved and hated politicians of India. He is the Chief Minister (Equivalent of State Governor in the US) of Gujarat, touted as one of  the most industrialized states of India.  He is loved by those who prospered and became wealthy, and hated by those who cried out for help, but got none.

In the Gujarat Mayhem a decade ago, both the criminals and victims were ethnic Guajarati. A majority of them did not like the death and destruction of fellow Gujaratis. Nearly a thousand of them were killed and several thousand were displaced and still living in the refugee camps.
No decent Gujarati should be offended with the reporting on rampage, it is not about them; it is about the criminals among them, regardless of the religious label they wear. Religion does not permit one to murder others. It is an embarrassment and a dark part of their history.

During the communal riots in Jabalpur in the early sixties, both Muslims and Hindus were killed in the mayhem. I wish every father in India, teaches the following lesson to his kids, as my father taught me. He told us that the "individuals" are responsible for the bloodshed and not the religions; he was very clear. He said, you cannot blame the nebulous understanding of religion and expect justice. The individuals responsible for disturbing the peace should be punished under the law, and a resolution to the conflict must result by serving justice. He said you cannot annihilate, kill, hang or beat a religion, then why bark at it?  It is not the religion, it is the individual bad guys that are the problem.

Crime is always committed by the individuals, and each individual must be brought to justice to restore faith in the society.  When you believe that your rights will be protected by your government, you feel safe and secure and that is how you build cohesive societies.

It is disappointing to see the depletion of humanness among a few vocal fellow Indians. They have no empathy for the pain and anguish of families who were massacred in broad day light in Gujarat.  It is a shame that a few of them even justify it, and a few others believe that the victims deserved it.  Indeed, it is an assault on the sense of morality of all religions.

The long term well being of the individual and the society hinges on the morality of the people and not the wealth and economic prosperity. No nation has ever lasted on the basis of economic prosperity alone, it is the collective morality and adherence to the justice for all that defines the idea of a civilized nation.

This piece is written in Indian context; hence, a self introspection for the Indians and Indian Americans may be necessary with the following five questions.

1.      Am I communal (sectarian) minded person?
2.     Am I capable of seeing another Indian as Indian without the religious lens?
3.     Do I blame others and not jettison my own share of responsibility?
4.     Do I feel bad, and not speak for fear of offending friends?
5.     Do I have a moral chip in me?

No society attains long term prosperity while oppressing a minority amongst them.

A “few” Hindus have rejoiced the massacre of fellow Gujarati Muslims, shame on their humanity and shame on them to call themselves Hindus. A few Muslims find it difficult to reconcile the situation, shame on them for not listening to their own religion. God declares in Quraan, that the dearest among you, is the one who forgives. It is not easy to do that.  A few Muslims rightfully want nothing but punishment, I wish they rather seek justice.

We have a choice to correct the situation, to begin with, at least in our own hearts.

An appeal to Chief Minister Modi 

Dear Mr. Narendra Modi,

You have a moral responsibility to the well being of every citizen of Gujarat, whether they personally elected you or not, you still represent them.

Your fellow Gujaratis were massacred under your guardianship, and I hope your humanness is alive to feel their pain and anguish.

Mr. Modi, you have many choices; one among them is repentance, the praischit, and I urge you to seriously consider it. It is the Michami Dukadam of your life, that is seeking forgiveness and forgiving others for any grudge you may harbor against others. Right now, you have a choice to start your spiritual and political life with a clean slate.

This means making good with the people who have suffered under your leadership; it will bring Mukti (salvation) to you. The other choice is to resign and show the strength of your character.
Your moral character in the only sustainable legacy you can leave behind, and not the wealth you create for a few. Gujarat has been around and will always be there with or without you, and I hope you are humble enough to see it.

You may consider working on earning genuine respect from every Gujarati, particularly the downtrodden living in the refugee camps. Uplift their lives. You will be uplifting a huge moral burden of fellow Guajarati and fellow Indians. Your honesty and integrity will be transparent in how you handle the situation.

As a leader of one of the industrially advanced states, you have a duty to establish Gujarat as a state that respects law, where justice will be served to every Gujarati, whether they live in a Jhompdi (Huts) or the castle. Every Indian should feel safe, as the law would take care of the wrong doers. You need to express your courage to speak up and follow dharma, the right path.
You can begin by mustering the courage to apologize to the citizens of Gujarat and restore their lives and bring justice to them.  It will bring peace to every Gujarati and every Indian. It takes a man to do it, and I hope you are man enough to do it and turn things around for the 16000 men and women living in refugee camps.  Do them good, restore their life and earn their goodwill. Once they see the results of restoration of a genuine man, they will forgive you and support you and, they will stand up for you, if you stand up for them.

I am not sure if you are aspiring to run the national ship, or the ones who benefit from it want to prop you up, either way, you have the responsibility to fellow Gujaratis.

Your chamchas may not care if you did not get the visa to the United States, but you may want to remove the ugly stain from your character. The Hindus and Muslims are willing to help you, provided you are willing to do the praischit. The choice is yours.

[Mike Ghouse is an Indian American committed to building cohesive societies, in the Indian context he hopes no Indian has to live in apprehension, discomfort or fear of the other. MikeGhouse is committed to building a Cohesive America and offers pluralistic solutions on issues of the day. He is a professional speaker, thinker and a writer on pluralism, politics, civic affairs, Islam, India, Israel, peace and justice. Mike is a frequent guest on Sean Hannity show on Fox TV, and a commentator on national radio networks, he contributes weekly to the Texas Faith Column at Dallas Morning News and regularly at Huffington post, and several other periodicals across the world. The blog www.TheGhousediary.com is updated daily. Mike Ghouse is associated with IndianMuslimObserver.com as Foreign Editor. He can be contacted at mikeghouse@aol.com]

SPECIAL REPORT: Mr. Narendra Modi, Read this and Tell where is your Rajdharma?

Posted by Indian Muslim Observer | | Posted in , , , , ,

By Abdul Hafiz Lakhani   

Ahmedabad: Gujarat   Chief Minister Narendra Modi is all set to woo Muslim voters of the state for ensuing state Asembly election by using some fudged and unreal facts and figures to show the rosy picture of Muslims, but the real picture is quite different. 

Social activist from Vadodara, J.S.Bandukwala in an exclusive talk with Indian Muslim Observer said that Narendra Modi is known for playing with facts and figures, which are very often completely bogus. For example, in his speach to the BJP Minority Morcha he claimed that "his government has spent Rs. 140 crores over 63 lakh Muslim students in 10 years". 

"Not that Muslim population in Gujarat is about 55 lakhs. Assuming this figure is correct and spread over ten years, it works out to about Rs. 220 per Muslim student per year. Does he call this scholarship? It is worth noting that he refused a Gujarat contribution to Government of India minority pre-matric scholarship that would have benefitted about 55,000 students per year, with amounts ranging from Rs. 700 to Rs. 1,000 per year. The Gujarat contribution was barely Rs. 1.25 crores, and Modi refused on grounds that he does not beleive in helping only Muslim students. Modi represents the hardcore RSS anti Muslim lobby. He has done tremendous damage to Muslims -- mental, physical and financial.Yet he realises that a passive Muslim community could help him in the December elections. Hence this drama of addressing a Muslim BJP morcha forum. To our misfortune Muslims like Mehboobali Bawa and Mukhtar Naqvi take pride in standing next to him," Bandukwala said.

Gujarat is very much behind in the race of development and Muslims are the most backward. Considering the overall progress Gujarat is below Punjab, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra, adding that the proportion of poverty in Gujarat should have been low or small, but it is large. In rural areas poverty among Muslims is eight times more than other sections, whereas in urban areas the ratio is two percent.

On the starvation front, Gujarat is nearer to those states whose condition is worst that Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) scheme is very important for the employment of common man but Gujarat’s share in this scheme is 5 percent only and as far as condition of Muslims is concerned, working ratio of Muslims as compared to Hindus is 10percent less.It can be said with certainty on the basis of a survey conducted by National Countil for Applied Economic Research (NCAER), a central government organisation, that in Gujarat, Muslims have been and are backward in every field. There was a time when both Hindus and Muslims had equal opportunities and were progressing but after 2002, Muslims have become second class citizens. They have educationally become very backward there. There are only a few Muslims in every field who are progressing and who can be seen frequently in discussions on television but the process of common Muslims becoming backward that started after 2002 knows no end. Experts and economists working in NCAER have brought out a survey report according to which Muslims of Gujarat have been left far behind economically.

This survey report is based on the statistics of National Sample Survey Organisation, NCAER and Sachar Committee Report. Just as during the prime ministership of Atal Bihari Vajpayee, BJP had been propagating ‘Shining India’, exactly in the same way these days the progress of Gujarat is being parroted everywhere, but the truth is that in Gujarat there are difficulties and unrest everywhere. This survey indicates that the statistics of hunger and economic conditions in Gujarat are the same as in Orissa and Bihar, while in Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand conditions are even worse. This means that out of eight states where BJP claims to have its government, in five states statistics of hunger are most disappointing.

This survey also shows that the poverty graph of Muslims of urban areas is 50 percent more than that of upper caste people (Hindus). Educationally also, Muslims are very backward, seeing that 75 percent children of Muslim population take admission in schools but only 26 percent reach the level of 10th class. Among Dalits this figure is 41 percent which in any case is more than Muslims. This is certainly a matter of concern but from BJP side it is propagated every now and then that Muslims are progressing in Gujarat. The need to bring this misconception to an end is therefore much more today than it was ever before.

It is also said that in Gujarat, riots don’t take place but the common feeling in civil society is that the feeling of terror and fear is so much ingrained in the minds of Muslims of Gujarat that they cannot even think of opposing any thing or opening their mouths for making complaints. The barbarity with which Ishrat Jahan of Mumbai was killed was felt all over the world and Gujarat police was condemned for it. On Gujarat High Court’s instructions, a special investigation team was constituted to enquire into her fake encounter. Satish Chandra Varma, IG of this investigation team, stated in his affidavit filed in the High Court that Ishrat Jahan’s encounter was fake but effort is being made to protect those who had killed her in a fake encounter. 
Obviously, under such state of terror and fear, no Muslim will stand to complain against such injustice. This means that the condition of Muslims in Gujarat is extremely bad. Needless to say that if other political parties, central government and Indian society do not take notice of such state of affairs immediately, Gujarat will become a ruthless and barbarian society.

Educationally, Muslims are the most deprived community in Gujarat.   A mere 26 percent Muslims reach matriculation and a large dropout takes place at about 5th standard. A disturbing trend was noticed in case of education at the level of graduation. Muslims, who had about the same level of education in the past, are found to have been left behind compared even with the SCs/STs. Despite 75% net enrolment, about similar levels compared to other groups, Muslims are deprived at the level of matriculation and higher levels.

The research team, which was headed by Tripathi, a professor at the Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, highlighted the fact that the four government primary schools in Juhapura area of Ahmedabad and govt. schools are able to enroll only 10 per cent of the children in the locality in the first standard, while there are only four classrooms for every 818 students.

There is a serious problem of lack of space. The schools are not able to accommodate all the students. Though around 6,000 children are born in Juhapura annually, there are not enough schools to accommodate them in the secondary and higher-secondary levels.

Inquiries with the Central Government reveal that the Gujarat Government demands 100 percent funding against the present norm of 75 : 25 Centre-State sharing. The officials in the Ministry of Minority Affairs point out that the Gujarat Government expressed its inability to implement the scheme until 100 percent grant (against the current Central contribution of 75 per cent) was provided by the Centre.

On the other hand it is the high caste Hindus who have benefited most in the recent years from the public provisioning of higher education, the SCs/STs are catching up and the Muslims are left behind. The disparity in access to higher education is increasing over time. This clearly is an evidence of discrimination in provisioning of higher education access, infrastructure and related services.

To overcome the Muslim deficit in different levels of education, the central government has launched a nationwide scholarship scheme with effect from April 1, 2008. All states have responded favourably, with the only exception of Gujarat which has not implemented even the pre-matric scholarship for minorities. There are 55,000 scholarships allocated to Gujarat of which 53,000 are to be given to deserving Muslims, but Gujarat has not cared to implement this programme.

A senior state bureaucrat admitted that the Gujarat Government believes that the scholarship creates discrimination among non-minority groups, hence it cannot be allowed.

[Abdul Hafiz Lakhani is a senior Journalist based at Ahmedabad, Gujarat. He is associated with IndianMuslimObserver.com as Bureau Chief (Gujarat). He can be reached at lakhani63@yahoo.com or on his cell 09228746770]

Why Muslim OBCs should be given reservation

Posted by Indian Muslim Observer | | Posted in , , , , ,

By Aakar Patel

In my class at the Seventh Day Adventist school in Surat, the person who stood first, every year, was Tasneem Mansuri. She married at 16 and left school. The person who always came first after that, who had come second till then, was Mir Maqbool Alam Khan.

Mickey, as we knew him, was the grandson of the Nawab of Bela, who owned the land that Surat’s Garden Silk Mills stands on. Mickey left his palace and moved to the US in the mid-90s, writing for Advertising Age.

Tasneem came from a community of oil pressers and cotton carders called Pinjara. The government lists Mansuris as an OBC (Other Backward Class) community. OBCs are economically backward communities, identified by sub-caste, what is called jati.

However, the Mansuris, like many other Gujarati castes, Hindu and Muslim, turned to trade and became middle class, doing well and calling themselves Shaikh. They no longer need reservations though they remain on the list of OBC beneficiaries.

There was another Shaikh in our class, Shaikh Mohammad, from a modest family and from a backward caste. A man brought Mohammad his lunch to school once when we were playing a match, riding a bicycle. Who was that, I asked him. “Mara pappa (my father),” he said, with no shame.

Like me he was an indifferent student, but unlike me did not have the advantage of being middle class. I have not been in touch with Muhammad since 1983, and I hope he is doing well. If he is, one reason would have been his father’s courage and doubtless sacrifice in sending his son to a school where he was the only one from a poor family.

Muslims in India are divided in exactly the same way as Hindus, by caste. The few whose castes turned to modern professions entered the middle class by default. The many whose families didn’t remain where they are on the social ladder unless they win the lottery of going to a privileged school.

This is important to remember as arguments are made for and against reservations for backward Muslims. They are not monolithic, and their disadvantages are derived from caste in the same sequence as for Hindus. Aristocrat Mickey, middle-class Tasneem and lower class Muhammad can’t be seen as one group.

However, the law on reservations allows Muslims only OBC status. Muslims who are converts from the Scheduled Castes, such as vankars and jholahas, are also clubbed with Hindu OBCs, though the Hindu SCs get separate protection. So do Buddhist and Sikh SCs. It is only Muslim and Christian SCs that are denied this status. The Mandal Commission report on OBCs showed that the number of Hindu OBC children in the 6-12 group not attending school was 49 percent. The number for Muslim OBCs was 56 percent. This difference is what the demand for separate reservations is based on.

Logically there is every reason for Muslim OBCs to be given reservations under the same conditions as Hindu OBCs.

However, the Andhra Pradesh High Court has struck down the Congress party’s decision to do this. The cancelled law gave “minorities” 4.5 percent inside the 27 percent reservation set aside for OBCs.

The court had three primary objections to this: first that the government had failed to satisfactorily show that the intended beneficiaries were backward enough to warrant preferential treatment. That they did not benefit from being on the general list of OBCs.

Second, that the umbrella term “minorities” included others like Parsis, who don’t need and have not asked for reservations.

Third that the constitution does not allow for religious discrimination in hiring.

The constitution already recognises the idea of reservations for backward communities  so this third point may be challenged in appeal quite easily. The second point is one that only needs clarification. The law, which the court rightly says was hastily put together, and in my opinion was drafted for Muslim votes, needs redrafting for clarity.

The court’s first point is the important one. It needs demonstration, and I believe that only a little more additional data will conclude quite clearly what my own anecdotal experience of caste among Muslims has been. As Tasneem’s family shows, not all Muslim OBCs need reservations, just as not all Hindu OBCs do. But as Muhammad’s family shows, many in fact do.

The richest Muslims in India – Azim Premji of Wipro, the Khorakiwalas of Wockhardt, the Nooranis of Zodiac – are Gujaratis and converts from upper (mercantile) castes. We can dismiss this as a coincidence arising from family advantage rather than caste but I don’t accept that.

The reason certain castes have access to capital is rooted in cultural advantage. Most Muslim OBCs are from jatis that are below that of Hindu OBC castes. The individual in 2012, whether Hindu or Muslim, cannot be expected to overturn centuries of deprivation with no assistance. This deprivation can only be alleviated by reverse discrimination, which is what reservation is.
In the court order, the bench remarked, “The very use of words ‘belonging to minorities’ or ‘for minorities’ indicates that the sub-quota has been carved out only on religious lines and not on any intelligible basis.”

Perhaps it is, but that is not what should be considered. The question is whether economically backward classes, of whatever faith, need reservations. The answer is yes. I hope the government changes the draft law, challenges the order, and puts reservations for OBC Muslims in place.

(Courtesy: FirstPost.com)

Rajasthan Government reinstates suspended Bharatpur Collector

Posted by Indian Muslim Observer | | Posted in , , , , ,

In a quiet move following a stay granted by the Central Administrative Tribunal (CAT), the Congress-led Government in Rajasthan has reinstated former Bharatpur Collector Krishna Kunal who was suspended for his failure to control communal violence at Gopalgarh on September 14 last year. Mr. Kunal had ordered police firing on a mosque in the town in which 10 people were killed.

A Division Bench of the CAT here earlier this week granted an interim stay on Mr. Kunal's suspension on the technical ground of the suspension orders not being accompanied by the departmental or disciplinary inquiry. The suspended Collector had contended that no probe was contemplated or pending against him.

The State Government issued orders for Mr. Kunal's reinstatement over the week-end reportedly after Chief Minister Ashok Gehlot reviewed the matter and gave a green signal for withdrawal of suspension. Mr. Kunal has been asked to wait for his new posting orders and register his presence in the Personnel Department as of now.

Ten people praying inside the Jama Masjid at Gopalgarh were killed and 38 injured on September 14, 2011, when the police resorted to indiscriminate firing on the mosque amid tension between Gujjars and Meo Muslims. Some of the policemen allegedly joined the armed Gujjar mob which stormed into the mosque and lynched the worshippers.

The CAT's directive staying the operation of the September 28, 2011 suspension order and the December 22, 2011 order by which the suspension was extended for 180 days was an interim in nature. The CAT issued notices in the case and posted it for hearing on June 13.
The State Government's decision to revoke Mr. Kunal's suspension on the basis of the CAT's interim stay has led to shock and outrage among the social activists and Muslim groups here. The “hushed manner” in which a legal loophole was left for the benefit of the suspended Collector has especially caused indignation among the informed circles.


The Rajasthan Muslim Forum and Rajasthan unit of the Jamiat Ulema-i-Hind have accused Mr. Gehlot of denying justice to the victims of police firing. They said the ruling Congress' decisions after the firing to hand over investigation to the CBI and suspend the Collector and Superintendent of Police were meant to “deceive the people”.

JUH State general secretary Abdul Wahid Khatri pointed out that the next of kin of those killed in the firing had lodged as many as 12 FIRs against Mr. Kunal and the then SP, Hinglaj Dan, with the charges of murder. Strangely, the CBI has neither taken up any of these FIRs for probe nor arrested any of the policemen who sprayed bullets on the mosque.

Mr. Khatri said the Collector's reinstatement went against the principle of rule of law.
“The State Government should have sought a legal opinion for an appeal against the CAT's interim stay or corrected the lapse on [the basis of] which the order was passed. On the contrary, it has used the stay as a ploy to revoke the guilty officer's suspension.”

Rajasthan Muslim Forum convenor Qari Moinuddin wondered as to what prevented Mr. Gehlot from ordering a departmental inquiry against the accused Collector when he believed that he had ineptly handled the Gopalgarh incident: “From Mr. Gehlot's conduct, it is clear that he does not want to punish those guilty of carrying out one of the most horrific massacres in Rajasthan.”
The Muslim groups alleged that Mr. Kunal had been reinstated to defeat the spirit of this past week's order of the Rajasthan High Court instructing the CBI Director to monitor the probe into the Gopalgarh violence and submit the progress report in the court. “The way the ruling Congress is resorting to various tactics to obstruct justice is outrageous. The [State] Government is acting against the constitutional mandate to uphold the rule of law,” said Mr. Moinuddin.

Muslim groups, which have been demanding Mr. Gehlot's removal ever since the Gopalgarh violence, have sought an appointment with Governor Margaret Alva to draw her attention to the State Government's conduct and seek action in accordance with the constitutional provisions.
Independent investigations carried out by civil rights groups, including the People's Union for Civil Liberties, had pointed to “collusion” between the local police, an aggressive section of the Gujjar community and some local RSS, Bajrang Dal and VHP leaders during the violence. The PUCL report stated that some self-styled Hindu leaders had “pressured Mr. Kunal into ordering the firing.”

(Courtesy: The Hindu)

Killing: A Grave Sin In Islam

Posted by Indian Muslim Observer | | Posted in , , ,

By Maulana Asrarul Haque Qasmi

Today human lives are killed on larger scale. People are commonly murdered on little trifles, even a trivial matter leads to the killing of many innocent lives, and particularly money appears to be the root cause to this evil. Every single day, we come across numerous instances of how a person is stabbed to death for only some thousand rupees, how a husband chokes his wife to death just on some baseless suspicion or personal quarrel, how an infidel wife develops a relationship with some stranger, then chalks out a plan together with him to murder her husband.

Such acts of killing and robbery take place every day due to some vested interests. It is not confined to some individuals only, but even different groups, tribes and castes clash with each other resulting into the killing of many people. The situation gets from bad to worse and more devastating when countries launch war against each other in order to fulfill their vested interests, hatching conspiracies to create civil war-like situations there. Thus, human blood flows like water everywhere. These incidents of public killing and slaughtering show how insignificant and cheap human lives have become today.

On the contrary, Islam has set great value upon every human life. According to Islam, killing a single life is akin to killing all humankind. Therefore, Islam made every possible effort to protect human lives. In order to safeguard human lives, it ensures the protection of both Muslims and non-Muslims living in an Islamic state. Islam teaches us to save human life and not to destroy it. Allah, the Almighty says in the Holy Quran: “Do not take life which God has made inviolate” (Al-Isra) Many Ulema (Islamic clergies) have interpreted this verse stating that “the blood of a peace-loving non-Muslim is equal to that of Muslims. Therefore, if a Muslim takes life of an innocent and peace-loving non-Muslim, he shall be sentenced to the Qisas (penalty) just as if he killed a Muslim. It implies that Islam sees no difference between Muslims and non-Muslims with regard to the protection of their lives. Just as a Muslim life should be protected, in the same way a non-Muslim must be assured of the safety of his life.

Islam left no stone unturned to stop the acts of killing and war that shatter peace and cause continued bloodshed. What happens today in general, is that when a person is assassinated, his family too gears up to repeat the same crime by taking his revenge. Getting provoked by it, the murdered person’s family also gets ready to avenge. Thus, a fierce fight goes on and on. In such incidents of bloodshed, not only common people are found slaughtered, but normal life is also disturbed badly. As a result, both the families live in constant scare and remain frightened and apprehensive that they may not lose any of their relatives all of sudden. So, we arrive at the conclusion that act of killing always brings devastating results, that is precisely why Islam strictly forbids it. Islam does not want anyone to be trapped in such a turbulent situation.

Islam lays due emphasis on both the Huqooqullah ( human rights) and Huqooq al-Ibad (God’s rights) According to Islam, both must be fulfilled by us. On the Day of Judgment, everyone will be held accountable for discharge of his or her duties towards the rights of God. Those who fulfil them properly will be well-rewarded and, on the contrary, those who fail to do so will be severely punished. However, those believers who have firm belief in Allah may expect forgiveness from His court. For Allah is the Most Merciful and the Most Gracious.

As for the Huqooq al-Ibad (Rights of Human beings) they will not be forgiven unless the victim himself forgives. Keeping this in view, the rights of human beings are highly significant. In fact, Huqooq al-Ibad includes the rights of all human beings, whether they are parents, neighbours, relatives, friends, local people or any other human being. The circle of Huqooq al-Ibad is very large in Islam that includes rights of both the Muslims and non-Muslims. Although some people enjoy more rights and some others have less, there is no way out without fulfilling their particular rights. Turning a blind eye to them will incur the wrath of Allah.

Since Islam keeps in view all humankind, it urges its followers to fulfil not only the rights of their relatives or Muslims, but of the entire Mankind. Of these general rights, the most important is the right to life and safety. It implies that life, be it of a Muslim or a non-Muslim, must be protected at any cost. In fact human life is highly valued by Allah, the Almighty. Furthermore, human life is created by none other than Allah, hence no one else should be permitted to take it. Even one cannot be allowed to take his own life. The value of human life can be realized through this Quranic verse: “whoever killed a human being-except as a punishment for murder or for spreading corruption in the land-shall be regarded as having killed all humankind” (Al-Ma’idah). Now let us meditate on this verse! It states explicitly that killing a single life is akin to killing all human lives, meaning that if you kill a single human being, it is just as if you killed all humankind.

In order to know how heinous crime it is to kill a human being, we should refer to this prophetic saying: “ The first thing that man will be held accountable for, on the Day of judgement, is Salah, and among the rights of human beings the claims of murder will be judged first”  One more Hadith associates the act of killing with grave sins: “The greatest of great sins is to associate someone with Allah, then comes killing of a human life, then to disobey the parents, then to tell a lie”. In this Hadith, killing has been regarded as the greatest sin after Shirk (associating someone with Allah). It proves that Shirk is indeed the greatest sin, and killing is in the top of the list of those bigger sins that come after Shirk.

In order to protect human lives, Islam not only adopts moral code of conduct but also makes use of punishment aiming to put an end to the incidents of killing. That is why a murderer is sentenced to severe punishment in Islam, that is, he too should be killed, except in those cases in which the heirs of the murdered person forgive in lieu of some compensation. In other words, if a person kills a human being, he too will be killed as retribution. To a casual observer, it appears to be a very severe punishment, as it is criticized by many biased people, but ultimately this law proves really fruitful for humankind and ensures the protection of many human lives, maintaining peace and safety. It is an open secret that the countries that have not imposed such rules and laws are now facing an alarming increase in the acts of killing. On the contrary, where there is such Islamic punishment given to the murderers, there is considerable decline in the incidents of killing. It seems as if the protection of human life depends on the very hard punishment. Yet, it is surprising enough that Islam, despite such Herculean efforts to protect human beings, is denounced today and considered as an extremist and outdated religion, while its teachings are harbinger of peace and safety.

(Courtesy: NewAgeIslam.com)

Palestinian Airlines resumes flights after 7 years

Posted by Indian Muslim Observer | | Posted in , , , ,

Palestinian Airlines is back in the skies after being grounded for seven years by the deepening enmities of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.

Once hailed as a symbol of Palestinian statehood dreams, the carrier is a tiny operation, with just two 48-seat turboprop planes, two weekly flights and a borrowed hub in Egypt.

But Palestinians say just being on the map again is what matters.

“My hands were shaking when I bought the ticket … and it said the name of the carrier is Palestinian Airlines,’’ said recent passenger Zuhair Mohammed, a 38-year-old teacher from Gaza.

The 15-year-old airline’s fortunes have been closely tied to the quest for a Palestinian state.
In the late 1990s, when Palestinians appeared on the verge of a statehood deal with Israel, Palestinian Airlines operated from Gaza International Airport, flew tens of thousands of passengers a year to Middle Eastern destinations and planned to expand to Europe.

Those ambitions were crushed by the outbreak of a Palestinian uprising against Israeli occupation in September 2000, following the collapse of U.S.-led peace talks. Over the next year, Israeli troops destroyed the Gaza airport, and Palestinian Airlines was forced to move its base to El-Arish, an Egyptian coastal resort about 60 kilometers from Gaza.

Seven years ago, the airline stopped flying altogether after its reservoir of passengers dried up. It had mainly served Gazans who, starting in 2005, could no longer reach El-Arish because of increasingly frequent Israeli closures of Gaza’s borders.

The closures accompanied an Israeli troop withdrawal from Gaza in 2005 and intensified with the capture of an Israeli soldier by Gaza militants a year later and the violent takeover of Gaza by the Islamic militant Hamas in 2007.

Until last year, the vast majority of Gaza’s 1.7 million residents were locked inside the territory, in part because Egypt went along with Israel and largely kept its Rafah border terminal with Gaza closed.

After the ouster of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak in 2011, Rafah gradually reopened and Gazans are now able to travel, though restrictions remain, particularly for men under 40, who need Egyptian security clearance.

Palestinian Airlines once again had potential customers. On May 9 it resumed operations, starting with biweekly flights between El-Arish and Marka Airbase in the Jordanian capital of Amman. The new route means Gazans no longer have to travel to Cairo, some 350 kilometers (215 miles) from their territory, to board planes.

Mustafa Abu Dan, a Palestinian civil servant, on Sunday bought four tickets at a Gaza City travel agency for a flight to Amman. He said he’s pleased to be saving time and money, but he worried that Gazans and their travel plans will always vulnerable to political upheaval.

(Courtesy: Boston.com)

Kansas bans Shariah, Muslims eye legal fight

Posted by Indian Muslim Observer | | Posted in , ,

By Lauren Markoe

Muslim civil rights groups are calling a new Kansas law that bans Shariah in state courtrooms an expression of Islamophobia that is vulnerable to a legal challenge.

The law, signed by Republican Gov. Sam Brownback on Monday (May 28), does not specifically mention Shariah, or Islamic law, but forbids state courts from basing decisions on foreign laws that contradict rights granted by the U.S. Constitution and state constitutions.

But the Council on American-Islamic Relations and other Muslim groups called the law little more than anti-Muslim propaganda.

“It’s obvious, based on the Islamophobic rhetoric of the sponsors of the bill, that the target was Islam and the Kansas Muslim community,” said CAIR spokesman Ibrahim Hooper. “This type of bigoted legislation should be repudiated not only by Muslims but by Americans of all faiths nationwide.”

When asked whether the law would be challenged, Hooper said, “Stay tuned.”

Stephen Gele of the American Public Policy Alliance, a Michigan group concerned about the use of Shariah in American courts, said the bill “should provide protection for Kansas citizens from the application of foreign laws” and “does not read in any way to be discriminatory against any religion.”

Brownback spokeswoman Sherriene Jones-Sontag said in a statement that the bill “makes it clear that Kansas courts will rely exclusively on the laws of our state and our nation when deciding cases and will not consider the laws of foreign jurisdictions.”

Three states — Arizona, Tennessee and Louisiana — have similar laws on the books. Oklahoma voters approved a ballot initiative that expressly forbids the use of Shariah in legal decisions, but a federal appeals court struck it down in January, calling it a violation of the First Amendment.

(Courtesy: The Washington Post)

Donate to Sustain IMO

IMO Search

IMO Visitors