Published On:28 October 2012
Posted by Indian Muslim Observer

Purpose of Hajj

By Dr. Abdul Ruff

Hajj is performed annually by Muslims in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. Thousands of Muslim pilgrims from all over the world, grouped by nationality, stoned the devil in Saudi Arabia's Mina valley on 26th October as the hajj reached its final stages.

Hajj is the largest human gathering on earth for religious purposes. Over three million registered pilgrims are taking part in the rituals which will be over on Monday the 28th October. Many pilgrims, however, conclude the pilgrimage one day earlier.

Muslims of all ages and colours, men, women and children from 189 countries, many of whom had saved up for years to make the trip, hurled pebbles at the vast stone pillars that represent Satan, shouting "Allahu Akbar (God is the Greatest)." They walked easily from one pillar to the next, moving in groups by nationality and carrying their countries' flags so as not to be separated in the sea of humanity. Generally no members get lost in the massive crowds.

Security forces were heavily deployed in the stoning area and first aid teams remained on high alert around the three adjacent pillars representing Satan. According to the authorities, 168,000 police officers and civil defence personnel were mobilised for this year's hajj. For the stoning, they organised specific times of day for groups of pilgrims to perform the ritual.


In 630 CE, Prophet Muhammad (SAS) led his followers from Medina to Mecca; it was the first Hajj to be performed by Muslims alone, and the only Hajj ever performed by Muhammad. He cleansed the Kaaba, destroyed all the idols, and re-ordained the building as the house of God. It was from this point that the Hajj became one of the Five Pillars of Islam.

Prophet Muhammad (SAS) was known to regularly perform the Umrah, even before he began receiving revelation. Historically, Muslims would gather at various meeting points in other great cities, and then proceed en masse towards Mecca, in groups that could comprise tens of thousands of pilgrims. Two of the most famous meeting points were in Cairo and Damascus. In Cairo, the Sultan would stand atop a platform of the famous gate Bab Zuwayla, to officially watch the beginning of the annual pilgrimage.

Ihram is the name given to the special spiritual state in which Muslims live while on the pilgrimage. During the Hajj, male pilgrims are required to dress only in the ihram, a garment consisting of two sheets of white unhemmed cloth, with the top draped over the torso and the bottom secured by a white sash; plus a pair of sandals. Women are simply required to maintain their hijab—normal modest dress, which does not cover the hands or face. The Ihram is meant to show equality of all pilgrims, in front of God: there is no difference between a prince and a pauper. Ihram is also symbolic for holy virtue and pardon from all past sins. A place designated for changing into Ihram is called a miqat (like Zu 'l-Hulafa, Juhfa, Qarnu 'l-Manāzil, Yalamlam, Zāt-i-'Irq, Ibrahīm Mursīa). While wearing the Ihram, a pilgrim may not shave, clip their nails, wear perfume, swear or quarrel, have sexual relations, uproot or damage plants, kill or harm wild animals, cover the head [for men] or the face and hands [for women], marry, wear shoes over the ankles, or carry weapons.

The ritual is an emulation of Abraham's stoning of the devil at the three spots where it is said Satan tried to dissuade the biblical patriarch from obeying God's order to sacrifice his son, Ishmael. The ritual, which takes place in the kingdom's usually-deserted Mina valley and comes to life only during the annual pilgrimage, began with the Muslim Eid al-Adha holiday as the faithful began by stoning the largest pillar, Jamrat al-Aqaba.

Associated with devil stoning, Mina used to be the most dangerous phase of the hajj and the most problematic for the Saudi authorities, marred as it was by deadly stampedes as well as fires in tent camps. In the past few years, however, tents have been fire-proofed and gas canisters and cooking are now banned. The stoning area has also been expanded to avoid overcrowding. Saudi authorities have built a five-level structure around the three stoning sites, allowing for a smooth flow of pilgrims who are only permitted to move in one direction throughout the area to prevent congestion.

Pilgrims confess that there's a sweet feeling about getting tired during Hajj, which Muslims who sincerely follow the Prophet of Islam, must perform only least once in their lifetime. "Ever since I was a child I had dreamt of standing on the Mount of Mercy in Arafat," where the Prophet Mohammed (SAS) is said to have given his last sermon, one pilgrimage said with a smile. "They were purely spiritual moments. The trip to perform the hajj costs many poor pilgrims all the money they had been saving small amounts for many (over 15) years and some people say they finally sold all their jewellery to “reach this place."


The Hajj is based on a pilgrimage that was ancient even in the time of Prophet Muhammad (SAS) in the 7th century. According to Hadith, elements of the Hajj trace back to the time of Abraham (Ibrahim), around 2000 BCE. Abraham's wife, Sarah, was unable to conceive, and upon her request, Abraham had taken their female servant, Hagar, as a second wife. Hagar bore Abraham a son, Ishmael. It is believed that Abraham was ordered by God to leave Hagar (Hājar) and Ishmael (ʼIsmāʻīl) alone in the desert. Looking for shelter, food and water, Hagar ran back and forth between the hills of Safa and Marwa seven times with her son. In desperation, she laid the baby on the sand and begged for God's assistance. The baby cried and hit the ground with his heel (some versions of the story say that the angel Gabriel (Jibral) scraped his foot or the tip of his wing along the ground), and the Zamzam Well miraculously sprang forth.

The Hajj is a demonstration of the solidarity of the Muslim people, and their submission to God (Allah in the Arabic language). The pilgrimage occurs from the 8th to 12th day of Dhu al-Hijjah, the 12th and last month of the Islamic calendar. Pilgrims generally travel to Hajj in groups, as an expression of unity. Some airlines have special packages for Muslims going to Mecca such as the Haj subsidy. Ships also take pilgrims to Mecca.

Though Hajj is associated with the life of Islamic prophet Muhammad from the 7th century, the ritual of pilgrimage to Mecca is considered by Muslims to stretch back thousands of years to the time of Abraham (Ibrahim). Pilgrims join processions of hundreds of thousands of people, who simultaneously converge on Mecca for the week of the Hajj, and perform a series of rituals: Each person walks counter-clockwise seven times around the Kaaba, the cube-shaped building which acts as the Muslim direction of prayer, runs back and forth between the hills of Al-Safa and Al-Marwah, drinks from the Zamzam Well, goes to the plains of Mount Arafat to stand in vigil, and throws stones in a ritual. The pilgrims then shave their heads, perform a ritual of animal sacrifice, and celebrate the three day global festival of Eid al-Adha.

Prior to Prophet Muhammad's era, each year tribes from all around the Arabian Peninsula would converge on Mecca, as part of the pilgrimage. The exact faith of the tribes was not important at that time, and Christian Arabs were as likely to make the pilgrimage as the pagans. Muslim historians refer to the time before Muhammad as jahiliyyah, the "Days of Ignorance", during which the Kaaba contained hundreds of idols – totems of each of the tribes of the Arabian Peninsula, with idols of pagan gods such as Hubal, al-Lat, Al-‘Uzzá and Manat.


However, not everyone was satisfied with the way their pilgrimage had turned out. Not every pilgrim had enough to eat. Nearby, many pilgrims struggled to reach the food and water a parked truck was offering free to pilgrims.

Performing Hajj was a hazardous journey for early pilgrims; Ibn Jubayr noted the skeletons of pilgrims who had died of thirst during the journey. In the seventeenth century a group of Egyptian pilgrims lost over 1,500 people and 900 camels. In 1924 around one-fifth of a group of Syrian pilgrims died and two years later 12,000 are thought to have died during the journey.

In the past few years, however, tents have been fire-proofed and gas canisters and cooking are now banned.

Walking wearily towards the pillars, an exhausted 63-year-old man told bluntly "my trip has been bad." Abdullah Jad, as he identified himself, said a company he had paid to organise his pilgrimage took his four-year savings and provided nothing in return, leaving him homeless and penniless as he moved across the holy sites. "An office took the money and told me they will have everything ready for me here," said Jad. But "upon my arrival, I found out that I had been fooled and that I had no transport and nowhere to stay," said Jad, still dressed in his traditional white pilgrimage robes and carrying an umbrella offered to him as part of an advertising campaign by a local telecom company.

The old man's voice quivered as he said that he had been sleeping at the Grand Mosque in Mecca and did not have enough money left to eat. Drenched in sweat, Jad said the trip had cost him around 25,000 Egyptian pounds (nearly $4,000 dollars).

As many pilgrims prayed after and during the stoning, others were taking pictures on their mobile phones of themselves next to the pillars. The photographing was criticised by members of the security forces who said through loudspeakers: "How are you people stoning Satan and taking pictures with him at the same time?

An Observation: Holiness of Hajj

Hajj is final pillar of Islam and is obligatory for Muslims. Since it is treated as the most important life achievement in the this for the individuals, Muslims are expected to very very conscious and cautious about the pilgrimage that is considered to be an asset for the life Hereafter. However, mere performance of Hajj does not automatically offer a pass port to Heavens as today’s Muslims tend to believe.

The Hajj pilgrimage obtains the religious sanctity only if it is performed with honest resources and proper ways, with full dedication and total and unconditional submission to GOD- not as a show peace to impress the material world.

I tis true many Muslims have plenty of resources and they go for the Hajj every years - at times as special guests of the king of Saudi Arabia who accepts huge sums and valuable gifts as service charges from the “ state guests” .. That is not correct approach to Islamic faith.

Since one time Hajj is the only proper format, those who have resources s could use the resources for positive propagation of Islam and promotion of Muslim interests, even helping those who have are practising Muslims with no such resources. That would perhaps bring the Haji closer to what he intents by a Hajj.

Behaviour of those Muslims who have performed Hajj is very important for the Muslim society. They are required to commit themselves to the Cause of Islam and Muslim society by continuing to do good work for the Muslim community. Those who do this know they are the favourites of the Almighty. .

Pilgrims should make sure they do not make the devil happy by their carelessness. When parameters other than self-purification - like business, photography, videography etc - chosen by the pilgrims themselves the pilgrimage becomes unworthy! Significance of entire pilgrimage is lost. Such pilgrimage could backfire too!

Fear of wrath of God is somehow missing among Muslims. The attitude “so what?” could even harm the pilgrims after the Hajj.

As God is not shared with others for worship, similarly, hajj is not linked to other non-spiritual matters. Almighty would not want Muslims to use stolen type money for Holy Hajj. The money should be properly earned- a fact the Saudi officials hide in order to promote Hajj as a tourism package.

It is essential to remember that after stoning the devil, the pilgrims should see the devil does not come after them.

Without sense spirituality, very often Hajj also remains a mere formality. Saudi Arabia that hosts the Hajj should ensure that the Pilgrimage is a meritorious effort by Muslim community!

[Dr. Abdul Ruff is Specialist on State Terrorism;Chancellor-Founder of Centor for International Affairs(CIA); Independent Analyst;Chronicler of Foreign occupations & Freedom movements (Palestine, Kashmir, Iraq, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Xinjiang, Chechnya, etc.). He is also former university Teacher. He can be contacted at abdulruff_jnu@yahoo.com]

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Posted by Indian Muslim Observer on October 28, 2012. Filed under , , , , . You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0. Feel free to leave a response

By Indian Muslim Observer on October 28, 2012. Filed under , , , , . Follow any responses to the RSS 2.0. Leave a response

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